DLH epidemiologist Sarah Casagrande was among the authors of a poster presented at the 2019 American Diabetes Association Scientific Sessions. Evidence suggests that heart rate is a prognostic factor for cardiovascular disease, for which persons with diabetes are at increased risk. The researchers examined the association between heart rate and levels of glycemia and found that mean heart rate was higher among persons with diabetes compared to those without diabetes. In addition, among those with diabetes, mean heart rate increased with increasing A1c, a measure of average blood glucose. Other authors included researchers from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, University of Miami, University of Manchester, and University of Michigan.